Welcome avid learner of linguistics!
I thought it was about time I made a video about syntax. So here’s
something very basic: How to draw simple sentence trees. Let us first take a look into what we
would need for such a tree. When we draw tree diagrams and syntax, we
can classify pieces of the sentence into these four groups: verb phrases, noun phrases, prepositional
phrases and adjective phrases. Of these verb phrases and noun phrases are the
most important ones, because a complete sentence has to have these two phrases
in order to be a complete sentence. With that said let’s take a look at the first example! The very first thing we do is determine
the parts of speech in this sentence. “The” is a determiner, “syntactician” is a noun, “got” is a verb and “gonorrhoea” is also a noun. Now we can start grouping – Not groping!
Grouping! “The” and “syntactician” form a noun phrase. “Since “gonorrhoea” is a noun, it’s a noun phrase as well! Now only “got” is left, and that is a verb belonging to a verb group. Together with the noun phrase “gonorrhoea”
the verb group establishes the verb phrase! Now we connect noun phrase and verb
phrase and we’re done! This sentence this a little more
difficult: Just like in the first sentence, let’s
first determine the parts of speech! “She” is a pronoun, “was” is an auxiliary verb, “sitting” is an inflected verb, “in” is a preposition, “a” is a determiner and “boat” is a noun. And now the tree: As pronouns function to replace nouns,
“she” is the first noun phrase. “Was sitting” is the verb group of the
sentence and the next word “in” already announces that there’s going to be a
prepositional phase in the sentence. “A” and “boat” are left now. They are a noun phrase which is integrated into the
prepositional phrase. The verb group and the prepositional phrase constitute the verb phrase. And after connecting noun phrase and
verb phrase, the tree is done! And that was it. I hope it didn’t hurt
that much. If yes: I’m sure you’ve got some aspirin somewhere. And if you like this
video please give me a thumbs-up and subscribe!