Ep3 가이아나 [10분상식 세계백과] – 가이아나 소개, 가이아나 역사, 네덜란드 식민지, 영국 식민지, 가이아나 석유 #가이아나조지타운 #영국식민지 #지식 #역사 #여행

Ep3 가이아나 [10분상식 세계백과] – 가이아나 소개, 가이아나 역사, 네덜란드 식민지, 영국 식민지, 가이아나 석유 #가이아나조지타운 #영국식민지 #지식 #역사 #여행


=English subtitles=[10 minutes Common Knowledge World Encyclopedia] Hello everyone. This is ten-minute common knowledge
world encyclopedia. 1. Introduction The nation known as ‘Guyana’ has an official name,
which is ‘Cooperative Republic of Guyana’. Its official name is Cooperative Republic of Guyana. The national flag of Guyana was created after
their independence in 1966. If you take a look at the design, red on
the most left side represents citizens’ passion. And the thin black edge represents their patience. And the yellow represents resources and
the white represents river. Green, which is taking the most part of the flag, represents forest since
it covers most parts of their land. Among these colors, since the yellow part
has an arrowhead shape, it is also known as the ‘golden arrowhead’. Guyana is located in the north of South America and it is near to Venezuela, Brazil and other nations. Based on the 2019 record,
it has 780 thousand population and Gyeonggido Hwaseong
had similar population in the same year. But ​​Guyana has 210,000 square kilometers of land area which is 300 times of
Hwaseong’s 700 square kilometers of land area. Its area is similar to
South and North Korea’s combined area. Based on the 2017 record,
Guyana’s 1 year GPD is about 3.6 billion dollars. It is the 152nd highest in the world and
Sierra Leone, and Burundi have similar GDP. Although Guyana’s official language is English,
most of citizens use ‘Creole’ language in their real life. Moreover, due to India’s influences, they use Hindi language and native language a lot. They also learn and teach Spanish and Portuguese language for communication with neighborhood nations, Venezuela and Brazil. About 60% of Guyanese are Christian like
Protestant, Catholic, Anglican and so on. Majority of Christians are Protestants and minorities are
Roman Catholics and other Christians. Beside from Christian, there are 30% of Hindu due to Indian influences, and the rest are Sunni Muslims. 2. history Guyana’s history begins from
the Voyages of Christopher Columbus in 1498. Sponsored by Queen Isabel of Spain,
Christopher Columbus started sailing to the New World in
August 1498 as we all know well. And Guyana was one of the regions
he found out at the time. After that, Spain and Netherlands started
to have continuous dispute over the ownership of the west region of
the Essequibo river’s downstream. Eventually, Spain withdrew first in 1609 and the Netherlands established West India companies in 1621 and ruled this area until the end of 18th Century. At this period, Netherlands developed
its industry by importing African slaves. In 1831, Britain purchasing this region,
it became British Guyana. In 1834, black people settled in urban areas by
the abolition of slavery and by importing laborers from India for
sugar plantation farms, it currently has
complex ethnic compositions and politic conflicts. After the second World War,
as the demand of citizens began to rise, in 1953, their legislative election
was practiced for the first time and that also led them to establish self government. But Britain refused to acknowledge it and invalidated their practices through military oppression. After a long time, they could become
an independent nation in May, 1966. Through the independence from UK, its name has changed from British Guyana to current name, ‘Guyana’. After the independence,
a pro-socialist government has ruled Guyana. As I mentioned previously, due to complex ethnic compositions, the political conflict period has been continuing for a long time. In February 1970, the government
turned into republic and in 1980, they announced new law for socialism based on cooperation and Burnham
was elected for prime minister. 3. politics & economy Guyana is a republic nation that
became independent from UK in 1966. It has presidential centered government of
a five year term, and the current president is ‘David Ar. Granger’ and
has no relationship with the car named Granger. He has performed as
the Guyana national guard commander. The parliament is a unicameral system with
a capacity of 65 people and has People’s Progressive Party PPP,
People’s National Conference PNC as the opposing main parties. From 1964 to 1992, PNC has ruled for a long time but from the 1992 election, the party has kept passing
its regime to the opposing party, PPP. Until 1998, PPP, which is supported by Indians, and PNC, which is supported by Africans,
continuously had severe oppositions. Through both parties’ political stability agreement, the government could get back to the stabilization zone. Since then, Guyana tried to focus more on
poverty and safety for political issue resolution. Guyana’s main industry is farming and
the main agricultural products are sugarcane and rice. Although Guyana has the main resource of
aluminium named bauxite, gold, diamond and other rich natural resources in its land, the country has been in underdevelopment state
due to small workforce and short supply of administrative abilities. But, according to the 2018 Wall Street Journal, in the deep ocean, 190 km far from the Guyana coast, it says they found 3.2 billion barrels of
buried oil which costs 224 billion dollars. They expect that the oil production from
this oil well would be possible from 2020. Lots of economists said, due to such oil production, Guyana, the third poorest country in South America, can be on the list of richest countries in the world. And they also mentioned that oil production per
capita in Guyana might surpass Saudi Arabia. In 2020, when oil drilling becomes official, Guyana’s GDP will rise 30% and it is predicted
that its growth will become faster. At this point, 2019,
when the oil industry has not yet begun, sugar, rice, and bauxite are the main export products. Among these, bauxite production
takes important position in the world and there are lots of rooms for mineral resource development for diamond, gold, copper and so on. 4. nature & social culture Guyana means ‘A region with
beautiful lake or stream’ in its native language. The territory of Guyana, which is located in
the northeast corner of the continent of South America, has similar size with
the Korean peninsula by having 210,000 sq km area. It is the third smallest nation in
South America followed by Suriname and Uruguay. The land is long in the north and south direction and
in general terms, it has a rectangular shape. It is near Venezuela, Brazil and Suriname, and
the northeast side is facing the Atlantic Ocean. The country is consisted of
fertile lowlands on the Atlantic coast, semi-flat area with central part’s savanna and rain forest and highlands in the southwest. Since the coast around the Atlantic Ocean is where rivers escape, deltas are well developed and dikes and canals are constructed. Since 85% of Guyana land area is covered by forests,
it has one of the largest rain forests in South America. Most of these rain forest areas are places where
people can hardly approach. There is a program called ‘Lost Land of Jaguar’ which was produced by the British BBC
documentary team for a long time in 2008. The BBC worked really hard to
capture Guyana’s tropical rain forest and they could discover a variety of rare species of
wildlife, trees, and aquatic life. Giant Otters, Harpy Eagles, and
Anteaters are the representative animals that can be found in South America’s clean areas
only including Guyana. How large are the Giant Otters? Generally, people picture cute and small otters but the Giant Otter residing in the amazon region
are capable to win against crocodiles. What, really? Beside from this, Guyana is
the first Caribbean region nation that joined the UNESCO World Cultural and
Natural Heritage Convention in 1977. Kaieteur Falls, located in the middle of
the Guyana rain forest, is one of the most powerful waterfalls in the world and it is also known for a spectacular waterfall
that falls at great speed. It is about five times higher than the Niagara Falls,
which free falls at 226 meters. In this tropical climate region,
the coldest month is about 26 degrees and the hottest month is about 28 degrees. Since the rain forest is so developed, only 2% of the entire land can be farmed and
only 6% of the land is grassland. As of 2004, the illiteracy rate of people over 15 years old is 3.5% and it is lower than the average rate for the entire central and South America. They are offering compulsory education for
children between 5 and 14 years old. For higher education institutions, they had Guyana University founded in
1964 in their capital city named Georgetown. The capital city, Georgetown,
was built by the British in 1781 and it is a port city named after
the British emperor at the time. Sugarcane grows in the fertile coastal plains and as sugar factories are established, many people have migrated from India to
work as farm workers. The culture of Guyana is almost similar to
the English speaking countries’ of the Caribbean. However, as the population of aboriginal people in
South America, Africa, and India came together, a unique culture has been formed. Guyana has common features in West India
cultures, food, festivals, music, sports and so on. The unusual thing is that most of the people enjoy cricket due to influence of the British. It was so popular that it even
launched Cricket World Cup in 2007. Cricket is a popular game in UK and
it is not widely known in Korea but it has similar rules with baseball. If their representative outdoor sports are cricket and soccer, they enjoy playing dominoes for indoor events. In October 2018, the World Domino Championships was held in Georgetown, the capital of Guyana, and in fact, the male domino world champion has been produced from Guyana for two consecutive years. The food in Guyana is usually seafood or spicy stew-like Creole dishes made with bitter cassava juice. There are a lot of unique foods based on it. There are many Indian recipes like curry and roti. 5. a well-known figure A well-known figure of Guyana is Deborah Persaud, a virologist born in 1960. Deborah Persaud is a pediatric HIV specialist who is included in the top 100 most influential people in the world, selected by Time magazine in 2013. HIV is a virus that causes AIDS. In the early 1930s,
the human immunodeficiency virus (SIV) a positive virus, has been infected by
humans and has evolved into the HIV virus. Persaud grew up in Guyana and
went to America in her teenage years. After receiving her medical degree from
New York University School of Medicine, she finished the pediatric course at
Columbia University Medical Center in New York and worked as the head resident there. She is a physician of the HIV Treatment Committee of the International Maternity and
Pediatric AIDS Network (IMPACT), and she is an important researcher leading early clinical trials of mother and
child transmission and early treatment. A pediatrician and epidemic specialist, Persaud is recognized worldwide in the medical community due to her active clinical studies about
pediatric AIDS and AIDS.

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